weddings always hit the headlines where a commoner joins the family to
enrich the royal DNA
pool and keep it healthy. As you might imagine there will be quite a
vetting process even where that may not be admitted to. Generally,
social status plays a part that need not include wealth, but could be achievement.
Royal weddings throughout history have helped shape the British monarchy and have had us glued to our TV screens and news outlets in the run up to the big day. Royal weddings are global events that attract hundreds of millions of spectators all around the world, but how much do you really know about the Royal weddings we’ve witnessed over the years. We reveal the 20 most fascinating facts about Royal weddings from over the years.
Royal Marriages Act of 1772 is an Act of the
Parliament of Great Britain (12 Geo III c. 11) which made it illegal for any member of the British royal family (defined as all descendants of King George II, excluding descendants of princesses who marry foreigners) under the age of 25 to marry without the consent of the ruling monarch.
joining the Royal family, you will become ranked in order of succession,
hence importance in a pecking order should you be called upon to assume
By comparison the marriage of the future King George V to Princess Mary of Teck (later Queen Mary) 125 years ago in 1893 was a relatively quiet and private affair. The couple were married at Chapel Royal at St James's Palace, which barely seats 100 people.
The wedding rings of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, The Queen, Princess Margaret, Princess Anne, and Diana, Princess of Wales were all made from the same nugget of Welsh gold, which came from a Welsh mine, Clogau St David's at Bontddu.
There is still a minute sliver (one gramme) of this original piece of gold left, which is in the custody of the Privy Purse Office. In November 1981, however the Royal British Legion presented The Queen with a 36-gramme piece of 21 carat Welsh gold, which is held by the Crown Jewellers to be used for the Royal Wedding rings of today.
Almost 100 years ago, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (known as Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother) established a long-held Royal Wedding tradition. As Lady Elizabeth entered Westminster Abbey on her wedding day, the Royal bride stopped to lay her flowers at the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior. The gesture was in remembrance of her own brother, Fergus, who died at the Battle of Loos in 1915 and to pay tribute to the millions of others killed and injured in World War I.
As Lady Elizabeth laid her flowers on the tomb as soon as she entered the abbey, she was the only Royal bride to actually walk down the aisle without her bouquet. Many Royal brides have adapted the gesture since then, laying their flowers on the tomb as they leave the church instead of when they enter.
In the United Kingdom the King or Queen,
as the head of state, is responsible for appointing a
that will provide an effective administration for her subjects. This is
a difficult task as you might imagine with so many factors to take into
account, such as vested interests that conflict with what might
otherwise be the efficient running of Britain.
of the main problems within the United kingdom is the
level of institutionalised
corruption that is widespread in the police and councils as reported on
many websites and in the newspapers. The problem is so ingrained that we
wonder if Her Majesty and her children
might want to deal with the present level
that continues unabated, despite the fact that such crimes carry a maximum
level of corruption linked to negligent management of the country is
partly responsible for the exceptionally high level of taxation of the
populace that tends to enslave, contrary to anti slavery
policies as to blatant chaining of humans to do forced labour. But the
effect of high taxes and a lack of affordable housing is a major
problem, making many citizens financial
slaves to wealthy landlords, who are not shy of profiteering from
their fortunate status. The modern view is that the UK may not be seen
as a free country until taxation is reduced and an affordable life
reinstated for every person domiciled in any British territory.
ruling classes have a duty to ensure that their subjects do not suffer poverty,
or servitude that might affect their health
and wellbing, other than that required to maintain the effective
administration of the country.
you may have read, the
Royal family is replenishing itself with each wedding, slowly bringing fresh perspectives to
the table. We hope eventually, that new blood will bring with it the
will to mould the United
Kingdom into a bastion of fair play and transparency that is a
prerequisite for justice and world
peace, to repair any leaks Britannia.
royals are not alone in this regard, with other world
rulers also struggling to eradicate corruption in their domains.
Duke of York
Laurence V. Admiral
TO Z OF ROYAL FAMILY MEMBERS 2018
Andrew Duke of York,
Anne Princess Royal
Catherine Duchess of Cambridge
Edward Earl of
Queen II Windsor
Camilla Duchess of Cornwall
Charles Prince of Wales
Dianna Princess of Wales
Harry Duke of Sussex
James Viscount Severn
Lena Elizabeth Tindall
Meghan Duchess of Sussex
Mia Grace Tindall
Philip Duke of Edinburgh
Sarah Duchess of York
Sophie Countess of Wessex
William Duke of Cambridge, Prince
TO THE BRITISH THRONE
Succession to the British throne is determined by descent,
sex (for people
born before October 2011), legitimacy, and religion. Under common law,
the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's children or by a childless
sovereign's nearest collateral line. The Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act
of Settlement 1701 restrict succession to the throne to the legitimate
Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover that are in "communion with
the Church of England". Spouses of Roman Catholics were disqualified
from 1689 until the law was amended in 2015. Protestant descendants of
those excluded for being Roman Catholics are eligible.
Queen Elizabeth II is the sovereign, and her heir apparent is
her eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales. Next in line after him is
William, Duke of Cambridge, the Prince of Wales's elder son.
Third in line is Prince George, the eldest child of the Duke of
Cambridge, followed by his sister, Princess Charlotte and younger
brother, Prince Louis. Sixth in line is Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex,
the younger son of the Prince of Wales. Under the Perth Agreement, which
came into effect in 2015, only the first six in line of succession
require the sovereign's consent before they marry; without such consent,
they and their children would be disqualified from succession.
The first four individuals in the line of succession who are
over 21, and the sovereign's consort, may be appointed Counsellors of
State. Counsellors of State perform some of the sovereign's duties in
the United Kingdom while he or she is out of the country or temporarily
incapacitated. Otherwise, individuals in the line of succession need not
have specific legal or official roles.
The United Kingdom is one of the 16 Commonwealth
realms. Each of those countries has the same person as monarch and the
same order of succession. In 2011, the prime ministers of the realms
agreed unanimously to adopt a common approach to amending the rules on
the succession to their respective Crowns so that absolute primogeniture
would apply for persons born after the date of the agreement, instead
of male-preference primogeniture, and the ban on
to Roman Catholics would be lifted, but the monarch would still need to
be in communion with the Church of England. After the necessary
legislation had been enacted in accordance with each realm's
constitution, the changes took effect on 26 March 2015.
TO Z OF ROYAL WEDDINGS
is for ANNOUNCEMENT. A proclamation will be displayed on an easel at
the gates of Buckingham Palace, while news of the birth will be tweeted
by Kensington Palace and emailed to the press. Gun salutes will also
mark the new arrival.
B is for BROTHER. The new royal baby will be 21 months younger
than older brother Prince George, who is directly in line to become king
C is for CHRISTENING. The baby will be baptised wearing a
replica of a lace and satin gown that has been used since 1841.
Tradition dictates the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby, England's
highest cleric, will conduct the christening.
D is for DUTY. Once an adult, a lifetime of royal duty on behalf of the sovereign awaits.
E is for EDUCATION. The royal youngster is set to enjoy
exclusive schooling. Both William and his brother Prince Harry went to
the elite boarding school Eton.
F is for FASHION. The new royal will be a trendsetter before it
can walk and talk anything George has been seen wearing has flown off
G is for GRANDPARENTS. William's father Prince Charles, the heir
to the throne, and his wife Camilla are expected to visit the baby in
hospital shortly after the birth, along with Kate's parents Michael and
H is for HOME. The new baby will grow up at the Cambridges'
apartment in London's Kensington Palace and Anmer Hall, a country house
on Queen Elizabeth II's private Sandringham estate in eastern England.
I is for INTEREST. The birth will spark huge interest around the
world, with international media camped outside the hospital doors
waiting for the first glimpse of the new royal.
J is for JORDAN. The baby will be baptised with water from the River Jordan.
K is for KATE. The 33-year-old duchess suffered acute morning
sickness again during her second pregnancy, causing her to miss royal
L is for LINE OF SUCCESSION. The baby will be born fourth in
line to inherit the throne, behind George and directly in front of uncle
M for MEMORABILIA. The Centre for Retail Research reckons the
royal baby will bring retail sales of around £60 million to
£70 million ($88-103 million, 84-98 million
euros), rather than the £247 million boost attributed to George.
N is for NAMES. Royal babies often get several Christian names,
with George getting three. Bookmakers' favourites for a girl are Alice,
Elizabeth, Charlotte, Alexandra and Victoria; for a boy, James, Arthur,
Henry, Philip and Albert.
O is for OBSTETRICIANS. The medical team will be led by Guy
Thorpe-Beeston, the surgeon-gynaecologist to the royal household, who
will be assisted by his predecessor Alan Farthing.
P for PRIMOGENITURE. Laws which took effect in March ending male
primogeniture mean girls born after October 28, 2011 can no longer be
overtaken by younger brothers in the line of succession.
Q is for QUEEN ELIZABETH II. The baby will be the monarch's fifth great-grand-child and her 17th descendant.
R is for ROYAL MINT. They will produce a £5 coin in
celebration and gift a special "lucky" silver penny to 2,015 babies born
on the same day.
S is for ST MARY'S HOSPITAL. The baby will be born in the
private Lindo Wing of the hospital in Paddington, central London. A
two-room suite costs £6,750 a night, though consultants' fees
can double that.
T is for TITLE. The baby will be known as His/Her Royal Highness Prince/Princess (name) of Cambridge.
U is for UNCLE HARRY. William's fun-loving brother is coming out
of the army and so may have more time to babysit. The baby will also
have Auntie Pippa and Uncle James on its mother's side.
V is for VICTORIA. The baby will be the great-great-great-great-great-grandchild of 19th-century queen Victoria.
W is for WILLIAM. The 32-year-old duke is training to become an air ambulance pilot. He will take two weeks' paternity leave. He could face a two-hour drive to London when Kate goes into labour.
X is for XX or XY? As with George, the couple do not know the sex of the baby.
Y is for YELLOW. Bookmakers are taking bets on the colour of
Kate's dress when she leaves hospital, with a spring-like yellow among
the favourites for the first baby pictures that will zip round the
Z is for ZZZ William and Kate can expect months of sleepless nights, but their nanny will be on hand to ease the burden.
TO Z OF ROYAL NAMES
ALEXANDER, Defender of the people. The feminine version, Alexandra, is
the Queen's middle name. In 2013 William and Kate gave their son George
this middle name in tribute to her.
B: BRICE, From the town of Bruis. This is the family name of
famed Scottish king Robert, who led the country to independence from
England in 1320.
C: CHARLES, Freeman. Strong Prince Charles shares a moniker with
Charles II (1630-1685), who came to power when the monarchy was
restored in 1660. Also Prince Harry's second name.
D: DAVID, Beloved. In something of a royal tradition, King
Edward VIII (later Duke of Windsor) was known informally as David, the
last of his seven names. Prince Harry's fourth name.
E: EDWARD, Noble strength. King Edward I's (1239 – 1307)
campaign to bring Scotland under English control is the subject of the
FREDERICK, Peaceful ruler. Always a favourite with royals, the name had
a surge in popularity in the 18th century when the German House of
Hanover claimed the throne.
G: GEORGE, Farmer. Prince George shares his name with the
Queen's beloved father, George VI, who saw Great Britain through the
Second World War.
MORE: The meaning behind Prince Louis Arthur Charles
H: HENRY, Ruler of the estate. He's known to the world as Prince
Harry, but the rugged young royal's first name is actually Henry – one
of the most-storied royal names.
I: INDULF, Wolf. This unusual moniker is the English version of
the medieval Gaelic name "Ildulb." Indulf mac Causantin (d. 962) was
king of the Scots
J: JAMES, Supplanting. The 21st-most-popular boy's name in the
UK last year, James is also the name of many British kings.
K: KENNETH, Fire. King Kenneth MacAlpin is considered by some to
be the founding father of Scotland in the ninth century.
L: LOUIS, Famed warrior. Prince William and Prince George both
have this as a middle name. It was likely chosen to honour Prince
Philip's uncle, Lord Louis Mountbatten.
M: MICHAEL, Who is like God. The name of the Queen's cousin Prince Michael of Kent.
N: NICHOLAS, Victory of the people. The Duke of Kent's son Lord
Nicholas Windsor, now in his 40s, shares a name with the saint who is
believed to protect sailors.
O: OCTAVIUS, Eighth. Royal families would give this name to the
eighth child (or eighth boy), as with Prince Octavius (1779-1783),
eighth son of King George III.
P: PHILIP, Fond of horses Prince Charles paid tribute to his
father, Prince Philip, when naming his first-born. Philip is one of
Prince William's middle names.
Q: QUINCY, Estate of the fifth son. Derived from the Latin word
"quintus," this was the name of rebel leader Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of
R: RICHARD, Brave power. King Richard III (1452-1485) may have
gotten a bad rap from Shakespeare, but this name has never gone out of
S: STEPHEN, Crown. A fitting choice for a royal, Stephen wasn't
always a proper name; it was used as a noun in Homer's ancient Greek
epic The Illiad.
T: THOMAS, Twin. Thomas Becket (1120-1170), the Archbishop of
Canterbury, had disputes with King Henry II and was killed by his men.
U: UNREADY, Bad counsel. Ethelred the Unready (968-1016) was
just seven years old when he took the throne, hence he became known as
the "unready" ruler.
V: VICTOR, Champion. Despite its martial meaning, this name is
more famous for its association with saints and religious figures than
W: WILLIAM, Determined protector. After his brother Prince William, who will one day become King.
Prince William, whose full name is William Arthur Philip Louis,
and his son Prince George, whose full name is George Alexander Louis
X: XAVIER, New house. St. Francis Xavier (1506-1552) was one of
the first Jesuit missionaries and devoted his life to taking Roman
Catholicism to Asia
Y: YOUNG. King Henry II's successor was known as Henry the Young
King to differentiate between father and son. He lived from 1155-1183.
Z: ZEID, To grow. Perfect for a born leader, the name represents
a person who encourages progression in himself and others.
Of a noble kind. Prince Philip's mother, Princess Alice (1885-1969),
lives up to the meaning of her moniker: she was Queen Victoria's
BEATRICE, Bringer of joy. This traditional name has had
resurgence in popularity thanks to Harry's cousin Princess Beatrice, who
shares her name with Queen Victoria's youngest daughter.
CHARLOTTE, Free, strong. A feminine spin on Charles, this has
been the name of numerous nobles, including glamorous Princess Charlotte
(1796-1817) and the youngest Windsor, Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
DIANA, Goddess of the moon, divine. The mother of princes
William and Harry, later called the "People's Princess," wasn’t the
first Lady Diana
Spencer. The artist daughter of the Duke of Marlborough
(1734-1808) shared the name.
FIONA, White, fair. Like Shrek's modern princess bride, the name
Fiona is an updated version of the original Scottish and Irish eponyms
Finola and Finnuala.
GABRIELLA, God is my strength. Prince and Princess Michael of
Kent gave this name to their daughter. Lady Gabriella, now a journalist,
is 40th in line to the throne and is called Ella.
HELENA, Light. Commonly used as a tribute to Roman empress St.
Helena, its variants are Helen and Ellen. It was the name of Queen
Victoria's third daughter.
ISABELLA, God’s promise. The Spanish form of Elizabeth, this
name has been given to more than 20 international queens and other royal
JANE, Gracious. Lady Jane Grey (1536-1554) is called the
nine-day queen – the length of her reign before being supplanted by
KATE, Pure. There are no "Kates" in royal history, but five
Catherines have been queen, including Catherine of Aragon, whose
marriage with Henry VIII sparked the Protestant Reformation.
LOYCE, Renowned warrior. There are no "Loyces" in royal history
but it's Meghan's mum Doria's second name. According to sheknows.com
People with this name have a deep inner desire to inspire others in a
higher cause, and to share their own strongly held views on spiritual
MARY, Strong waters. Her Majesty's grandmother Mary of Teck was
engaged to Prince Albert. After he died of the flu, she wed his younger
brother, the future George V.
NOOR, Light. The Jordan beauty Queen Noor comes to mind when we
think of this name; however, Noor, which is of Arabic origin, is
actually a unisex title.
OLGA, Holy. Derived from the Scandinavian "Helga," Olga is a popular name in Russian aristocracy.
PHILIPPA, Lover of horses. The feminine form of Philip, this Greek name – derived from Alexander the Great's father.
QUINN, Wise, queen. Perfect for a born ruler, Quinn, which means
fifth-born, would also be ideal for a family's fifth infant.
ROSE, Rose. Princess Margaret's lovely middle name was at the
insistence of George V. His wife had wanted to call her "Ann Margaret".
SAVANNAH, Treeless plain. The Queen's eldest grandchild, Peter
Phillips, and his Canadian wife, Autumn, gave their first daughter this
name, which has native American origins.
THYRA, Thor’s struggle. Two Danish princesses had this name,
pronounced "Tara." The elder Thyra's sister, Alexandra, married Queen
Victoria's eldest son, Edward VII.
URSULA, Little female bear. St. Ursula, a Roman-British
Christian saint, was, legend has it, the daughter of a king, who was
martyred after she refused to marry.
VICTORIA, Victory. Many princesses in the past several generations have been named in honour the stalwart queen.
WANDA, Slender, young tree. The story of Polish Queen Wanda –
who drowned herself to avoid marrying an enemy – is a legend in Poland.
XENIA, Hospitality. Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia
was a muse to Danish composer Valdemar Vater. He wrote the "Xenia Polka
Mazurka" for her.
YASMIN, Jasmine flower. Hollywood royalty meets the real thing
in Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, the daughter of Rita Hayworth and Prince
ZARA, Bright as the dawn. It's thanks to her uncle, Prince
Charles, that the Queen's granddaughter got her name. "She made a sudden
and positive arrival and my brother thought it was an appropriate
name," says Princess